Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Uandishi wa ki-Ingereza Bora

Ninafundisha katika idara ya ki-Ingereza katika Chuo cha St. Olaf, hapa Marekani. Moja ya masomo ninayofundisha ni uandishi bora wa ki-Ingereza, yaani ki-Ingereza sanifu. Ninawajengea wanafunzi nidhamu ya kuboresha uandishi wao wa insha. Wakishaandika insha, ninawashinikiza waiboreshe, kwa kuangalia na kutafakari kila neno, na kila sentensi, mara nyingi iwezekanavyo. Hii ni kazi ngumu kwa yeyote, wakiwemo wanafunzi wangu, pamoja na kwamba ki-Ingereza ni lugha mama yao.

Moja ya kazi ninazowapa ni kuiboresha insha yangu iitwayo "Do You Have an Accent?" ambayo niliandika miaka iliyopita, ikachapishwa hapa Minnesota. Nilikuwa nimeandika mswada wake, nikaurekebisha tena na tena, hadi kufikia kiwango cha kuweza kuchapishwa.

Lakini, hata baada ya kuchapishwa, niliendelea kuiangalia makala hii kwa jicho kali, tena na tena. Katika jitihada hii, niligundua vipengele visivyopungua nane ambavyo vinaweza kurekebishwa na insha ikawa bora zaidi. Ninapowapa wanafunzi wangu zoezi hili, ninakuwa na lengo la kuwathibitishia kuwa uandishi bora ni kazi inayohitaji umakini mkubwa.

Ninaileta hapa insha hiyo iliyochapishwa, ili wasomaji wa blogu hii wanaoamini wanakijua ki-Ingereza waone kama wanaweza kugundua vipengele hivyo vinavyohitaji marekebisho. Mtu akitaka kuleta rekebisho la sentensi yoyote, ili kuiboresha, anakaribishwa kufanya hivyo. Niliwahi kuleta zoezi hili kabla katika blogu hii. Fundisho ninaloleta ni kuwa hata kama mtu umesoma kiasi gani, usidhani umefikia mwisho wa safari.

DO YOU HAVE AN ACCENT?

(Joseph L. Mbele)

If you are like me, with deep roots in Africa, you probably have heard Americans say you have an accent. You might feel that having an accent is not a good thing. Many new immigrants in America are embarrassed about their foreign accents and struggle to learn to speak like Americans. I met a Somali youth in Faribault, Minnesota, who felt that way. I think all this is rather unfortunate. I teach English at college level in America. With apologies to no one, I speak English with my distinctive Tanzanian accent.

An accent is an intrinsic aspect of spoken language. Nobody can say a word, let alone speak a language, without an accent. Basically, an accent is one’s distinctive way of speaking. Though an accent is an individual characteristic, it is also a collective one. Despite their individual differences, people from a given country or region tend to speak with a recognizable accent. I can tell a South African from a Nigerian, or an American from an Indian, based on the way they speak English. Those who know Americans say that Texans, for example, have their own accent, so do Californians, and Americans from other regions.

The accent we grew up with sounds normal to us. We might not even notice it. That we notice the accents of foreigners doesn’t mean that they alone have accents. American English sounds normal to Americans, but it is not a universal norm. English is an international language, with different varieties. With the world getting increasingly interconnected, people who ignore those varieties do so at their own peril, just as those who think they don’t need other languages. Our best option is to learn to hear and understand as many varieties and accents as possible.

Unfortunately, most people have not thought about the issue in this way. Immigrants who struggle to change their accents in order to “fit in” should think about this, so should those who complain about immigrants who speak with foreign accents. Why should someone with a proper Nigerian or Ugandan accent be pressured to speak like an American? Why should someone with a proper Jamaican or British accent be pressured to speak like an American? In Africa, no one asks foreigners to speak English like Africans: the British speak with their own accent; so do the Indians, the Australians and others. That, I think, is the way to go.

3 comments:

NN Mhango said...

Ndugu Mbele,
Kwanza nakushukuru kwa kuleta darasa hili hasa kwetu sisi waandishi. Ni msaada mkubwa kubadiishana ujuzi na uzoefu. Kwangu wewe ni mkongwe. Hivyo, ninapotia guu najua naingia kwenye bahari yenye kina kirefu kiasi gani.
Hiyo ndiyo exercise yangu kwa suali lako.

If you are like me, with deep roots in Africa, you probably have heard Americans saying; you have an accent. You might feel that having an accent is not a good thing. Many new immigrants in America are embarrassed about their foreign accents; and do struggle to learn to speak like Americans. I met a Somali youth in Faribault, Minnesota, who felt that way. I think; all this is rather unfortunate. I teach English at college level in America. With apologies to no one when I speak English with my distinctive Tanzanian accent.

An accent is an intrinsic aspect of spoken language. Nobody can say a word, let alone speak a language, without an accent. Basically, an accent is one’s distinctive way of speaking. Though an accent is an individual characteristic, it is also a collective one. Despite their individual differences, people from a given country or region tend to speak with a recognizable accent. I can tell a South African from a Nigerian, or an American from an Indian, based on the way they speak English. Those who know Americans say that Texans, for example, have their own accent, so do Californians, and Americans from other regions.

The accent we grew up with sounds normal to us. We might not even notice it. That we notice the accents of foreigners doesn’t mean that they alone have accents. American English sounds normal to Americans, but it is not a universal norm. English is an international language, with different varieties. With the world getting increasingly interconnected, people who ignore those varieties, do so at their own peril; just as those who think they do not need other languages. Our best option is to learn to hear and understand as many varieties and accents as possible.

Unfortunately, most people have not thought about the issue in this way. Immigrants who struggle to change their accents in order to “fit in”, should think about this; so should those who complain about immigrants who speak with foreign accents. Why should someone–with a proper Nigerian or Ugandan accent–be pressured to speak like an American? Why should someone with a proper Jamaican or British accent be pressured to speak like an American? In Africa, no one asks foreigners to speak English like Africans; the British speak with their own accent; so do the Indians, the Australians and others. That, I think, is the way to go.

Mbele said...

Ndugu Mhango

Ni ajabu kuwa, ingawa zoezi limekuwepo hewani kwa siku kadhaa, ni wewe tu ambaye umejitokeza kujaribu. Sijui, labda wako wengine ambao bado wanajinoa kabla ya kujitosa ulingoni.

NN Mhango said...

Ndugu Mbele usishangae. Nadhani unajua mwitikio hasa wa watu wetu kwenye masuala ya kielimu. Ni juzi tu kitabu changu cha ushairi wa kimombo cha Psalm of the Oppressed kilitoka, nilipata mwitikio wa anonymous mmoja tu. Hivyo, wala usishangae. Wapo wanaoogopa kukosea na wengine hivyo wasijue kuwa mojawapo ya njia ya kujifunza ni kukosea. Ngoja tuone kama kuna wengine watakaojitokeza.